Integration and conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements of H. pylori and they cause genetic variation in the H. pylori population. This has an impact on the pathogenicity of H. pylori. Ace Infectious offers services to help study H. pylori ICEs to analyze the specific elements of ICEs and discover the association between ICEs and H. pylori pathogenicity.
H. pylori ICEs
There are three highly variable genomic islands in H. pylori, cagPAI, tfs3, and tfs4. tfs3 and tfs4 are both ICEs and tfs4 contains three subclasses tfs4a, tfs4b, and tfs4c. They are known as ICEs that integrate the H. pylori type IV secretion system (ICEHptfs). ICEs have been found to be associated with the pathogenicity of H. pylori. For example, the complete dupA cluster in ICEs is significantly associated with the increase of duodenal ulcers in the US population, and isolates of H. pylori with a complete dupA cluster can induce higher IL-8 production in vitro. In addition, ICEs could combine with cagPAI to induce high inflammation. Moreover, the presence of complete ICE segments is thought to be a possible risk factor for the development of gastric cancer.
Fig. 1 Genetic properties of ICEHptfs3 and ICEHptfs4 (Waskito et al., 2018).
Ace Infectious offers three main services for ICEs.
Individual gene research
We offer research services on the individual gene in ICEs. Genes (e.g., ctkA) in ICEs produce proteins that may cause adverse responses such as inflammation in host cells, and genes (e.g., pz39) in ICEs can also be integrated into host cells to play a role. We offer knockout or overexpression experiments and transfection experiments to help explore the pathological effects that the individual gene in ICEs can cause in host cells. Then, we also offer gene sequencing services to explore the diversity of the individual gene in ICEs. If further research is needed on the effect of genetic diversity on performing pathogenic functions, we can provide that as well.
Complete gene cluster research
ICEs are associated with the type IV secretion system. Studies have found that complete gene clusters (e.g., dupA cluster) have an effect on the disease caused by H. pylori. We offer experiments to help investigate the association between gene clusters of H. pylori ICEs and H. pylori pathogenicity. And we also provide tfs-types-based H. pylori pathogenicity studies. We can provide gene sequencing, bioinformatics analysis, and preclinical validation to help explore pathogenicity associated with gene clusters or tfs-type.
Transfer and exchange research of ICEs
Studying the transfer and exchange of ICEs of H. pylori helps predict the potential pathogenicity of different populations of H. pylori. We provide bioinformatics analysis and preclinical experiments to help study the inter-population transfer and exchange of H. pylori ICEs. We help analyze transfer and exchange situations and study the influencing conditions that affect transfer and exchange.
Collaborate with us
Accelerated studies of ICEs can help further explore the pathogenesis of H. pylori and predict the pathogenic capacity of H. pylori. Ace Infectious offers three main services for ICEs to help analyze the specific elements of ICEs and discover the association between ICEs and H. pylori pathogenicity. We also help to discover the toxin-antitoxin systems and the transfer of H. pylori ICEs between populations. We have great expertise in H. pylori research, so please do not hesitate to work with us.
- Waskito, L. A.; et al. The role of integrating conjugative elements in Helicobacter pylori: a review. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2018, 25(1): 86.
- Delahay, R. M.; et al. Phylogeographic diversity and mosaicism of the Helicobacter pylori tfs integrative and conjugative elements. Mobile DNA. 2018, 9(1): 5.
- Mucito-Varela, E.; et al. Integrative and conjugative elements of Helicobacter pylori are hypothetical virulence factors associated with gastric cancer. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2020, 10: 525335.
※ All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.